Data for: Associations of Vitamin D Status with Markers of Metabolic Health: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China
Data for this study were originally collected as part of the Study of Urban Residents Eating-out Behavior (SUREB) (13), a cross-sectional community-based survey that has evaluated the dining-out behaviors and nutritional status of urban residents in Shanghai, China. Data were collected using cluster sampling from various districts of Shanghai between 2012 and 2014. A total of 1,032 participants, aged 18 to 74 years, were recruited to answer questionnaires that included self-reported demographic information, dining-out behaviors, and other lifestyle issues. Half of the participants were randomly selected to participate in further examinations, which included the collection of anthropometric measures and a fasting venous blood draw. In the present study, we only included those participants who had blood test results, and further excluded those with missing data for anthropometric measurements, for a final sample size of 508. Each participant answered a self-reported questionnaire, including age, gender, education level, total annual income, and lifestyle factors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sleep duration, appetite, and outdoor physical activity (PA)). Current smokers were defined as those who consume at least one cigarette per day. Alcohol use was classified as either “Yes” or “No” when asked if it was consumed on a daily basis. Sleep duration was calculated as the average self-reported sleep time for the previous three nights. The time spent performing outdoor PA (hours/week) were calculated as the product of mins/day of daily PA and weekly frequency (days/week) and then converted to hours/week. Participants arrived for their examination between 8:00 and 10:00 a.m. after an overnight fast. The participants were asked to wear light clothing and to void their bladders before measurements. Body height was measured barefoot using a stadiometer to the nearest 0.1 cm, and body mass was obtained to the nearest 0.1 kg using a digital scale. Waist circumference (WC) was measured using a plastic tape measure to the nearest 0.1 cm, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated as body mass (kg) divided by body height (m) squared. After sitting quietly for a minimum of 5 minutes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were measured on the left arm at heart level in a seated position using a standard mercurial sphygmomanometer. Venous blood samples were collected into vacuum test tubes and were sent to the clinical laboratory of Changhai Hospital within 30 minutes of blood draw. Blood glucose was determined enzymatically. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C) concentrations were determined using an automated enzymatic analyzer (Automatic Analyzer 7080, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). Finally, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were determined using enzyme immunoassays (human ELISA assay kit, Cayman chemical Co., USA).