Diverse farming systems and their impact on macro and microelement content of vegetables & crops.
Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of any country. In this data agriculture activities are described in term of nutritional value of crops and vegetables in North India, Haryana. Crops and vegetables according to the climate of Haryana were shown in a field from 2019 to 2021 according to sowing season of each Rabi and Kharif crops. There were six seasons in three years. Four plots of 8.0 m × 8.0 m each of organic as well as conventional were used for sowing. Crops were chosen on the basis of their suitability to the climate of north India. Rabi crops included peas (Pisum sativum), berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum), mustard (Brassica nigra), onion (Allium cepa), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Kharif season included millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sesame (Sesamum indicum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). From each season, crops were harvested and subsequently, their macro and micronutrient analysis were carried out. The comparison of macro elements such as K, P, Na, Ca, S and Mg and microelements Mn, Fe, Cu, Al, Zn and B in organic vs. conventional farming at the end of each season each year was done. Samples were prepared with the help of wet digestion method and then analysed by element analyzer and ICP-OES (Inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer).Descriptive statistics were performed using Graph Pad Prism software at a significance level of ≤ 0.05. Figures were plotted with Microsoft Excel. Data shows that mean of macroelements like potassium(3533 mg/kg), phosphorus( 282 mg/kg), magnesium(176 mg/kg) ,sodium( 282 mg/kg),sulphur( 390 mg/kg) and calcium(188 mg/kg) was found more in each mineral in case of organic farming as compared to conventional farming that are K(3317 mg/kg),P(240mg/kg),Mg(143 mg/kg), Na( 237 mg/kg), S ( 273 mg/kg) and Ca( 153 mg/kg).All data were calculated in term of mean, standard deviation and minimum and maximum value of minerals present in the crops and vegetables. Also, microelements mean in organic farming was found to be more Mn(2.12 mg/kg ),Cu( 0.670 mg/kg), Fe(4.16 mg/kg ), Al( 1.65 mg.kg),Zn(2.13 mg/kg) and B(1.65 mg/kg) as compared to conventional farming that contain Mn (0.787 mg/kg),Cu (0.393 mg/kg), Fe (2.48 mg/kg), Al (0.933 mg/kg), Zn (1.57 mg/kg) and B(0.593 mg/kg).So different macroelements and microelements can be analysed in organic as well as conventional farming to show that organic farming with the help of organic fertilizers like vermicompost and seaweed is an effective method of agriculture with low input. In conventional farming lot of chemical fertilizers like urea,diammonium phosphate (DAP) has been used from so many decades due to which health of soil and nutritional value of crops and vegetables are deteriorating at a high level. So organic farming can be a best alternative with cheap and cost effective inputs, fertile soil and a nutritious food as compared to conventional one.
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Methods used to analyse the data was described as follows: Reagents: The chemicals of analytical grade (Nitric acid, Hydrogen peroxide ) were purchased from SRL (Sisco Research Laboratories, Mumbai, India). Qualitative Filter paper was purchased from (Hi-Media, Mumbai India). Analysis method: Samples were prepared with the help of the wet digestion method (Popović-Djordjević, et al.2019). First, all types of crops and vegetables were washed with normal tap water and afterward with distilled water. The samples which are mainly seed parts (millet, mustard and pea), leaves part (berseem, sorghum and fenugreek) and stem parts (potato and onion) of vegetables and crops were allowed to dry at room temperature. A total of 8 samples were prepared, four from each slot, organic as well as conventional. Each composite sample contained individual 4-5 samples which were randomly taken from the experimental field. The crops as well as vegetables, were first cut into pieces and then make into a mixture in a high-speed homogenizer. Each sample (vegetables and crops) weighing 0.5 grams was transferred to a 250 ml volumetric flask and digestion was carried out with a mixture of 65% HNO3/30%H2O2 (7:1), at first overnight at room temperature and afterward incubation of samples in a water bath for 5 hours at a constant temperature of 80℃.After the decomposition of each sample, all contents of the sample were transferred to another 50 ml volumetric flask and made final volume with distilled water. Filtration was done by qualitative papers. All Samples were done in triplicates. The content of different macro elements (S, K, Na, P, Ca, Mg) and microelements (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Al) was analyzed from samples of fresh vegetables and grains using element analyzer (Euro Vector EA 3000) and ICP-OES (Agilent 7900) (Inductive coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy). Results were analyzed in terms of mean as well as standard deviation. All results were defined in terms of mg/kg.Software used was Graph Pad Prism.