VR study exp 2 phase I and II data analysis

Published: 24 July 2019| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/h5hnc3v8d6.1
Nicolas Cevallos


The aim of this study was to compare a virtual reality (VR) training program to a standard surgical guide training program (SG) for a simulated tibial shaft intramedullary nail (IMN) procedure. 20-first and second-year novice medical students were recruited and randomized to VR(n=10) and SG(n=10) training groups. Participants were then evaluated by a blinded attending surgeon performing simulated tibial IMN procedure immediately after training (Phase-1) and again 2-weeks later (Phase-2) using a procedure-specific checklist and 5-point global assessment scale. Phase-1 was completed by all participants; 17 participants returned to complete Phase-2 VR(n=8), SG(n=9). Global assessment scores were significantly higher for VR than SG groups in all categories and in aggregate (p=0.003), as were the percentage of steps completed correctly (63% vs. 25%, p=0.002). The VR group showed a higher percent improvement in global assessment scores between Phase-1 and Phase-2 of the experiment, which was significant for knowledge of instruments (50% vs. 11%, p=0.01). All statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism Statistics / Data Analysis software (GraphPad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA) using non-parametric tests. The performance of the Surgical Guide and Virtual Reality groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test for each section of the Global Assessment 5-Point Rating Scale and Fischer’s Exact test for the number of students able to complete each step of the Procedure-Specific Checklist. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.



University of California Los Angeles


Education, Virtual Reality, Surgical Education, Orthopedics Surgery