The sustainable development of STEAM education has an important influence on the promotion of reform and innovation in the field of primary education. To explore the impact of intelligent robots on the sustainable development of STEAM education, this study developed and applied a STEAM course with the theme of intelligent educational robots, and then surveyed 474 primary students who had taken this course. Results showed that hands-on was found to be a predictor to minds-on and minds-on had significant effects on hearts-on. Interestingly, while the personal operation of intelligent robots by student had a positive effect on stimulating minds-on thinking, it had no significant direct effect on promoting minds-on participation. This study suggested that teachers should pay attention to giving students appropriate teaching guidance based on students' hands-on operation, and provide them with some support strategies that can organize learning resources flexibly and participate in deep learning, so as to inspire their hearts-on ex-perience and improve the sustainable development of STEAM education.