High-speed trains derived from Annex E / EN 1991-2

Published: 25 September 2023| Version 3 | DOI: 10.17632/hdr6dd5xv2.3
Pedro Museros, Andreas Andersson, Benjamin Pinazo


This new version of dataset "doi: 10.17632/hdr6dd5xv2.1" is intended to fix an error detected in the definition of the "conventional trains" contained in such previous dataset. The error arising from a bug in a computer code, was detected in Feb 2023. Therefore, while in the present version the conventional trains have been updated, the "articulated" and "regular" ones remain unchanged. The dataset contains 3759 realizations of axle load sequences corresponding to potential high-speed trains (conventional, articulated, regular) which comply with the prescriptions in Annex E / Eurocode EN 1991-2, Actions on structures - Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges. Therefore, the dataset describes potential sources of dynamic excitation for bridges, falling within the range of application of EN 1991-2 for high-speed lines. Annex E in EN 1991-2 establishes the conditions that a sequence of train loads ought to fulfil to respect the limits of validity of load model HSLM-A. Consequently, this dataset represents a (dense) ensemble of trains defined under the range of validity currently associated to HLSM-A. Such conditions are described in the attached “Characteristics of the high-speed trains derived from Annex E (EN1991-2).pdf”. Four types of traction are considered: (1) distributed traction (this one not used for regular trains); (2) power cars with wheelbases equal to HSLM-A; (3) power cars with wheelbases equal to RENFE S103 (a Siemens unit); (4) power cars with wheelbases equal to RENFE S112 (Talgo Avril). One condition stipulated in Annex E / EN 1991-2 is not respected in this dataset: the requirement that wheelbase ratios D/dBA and (dBS-dBA)/dBA should not be close to integers. This deliberate omission is assumed following publications where it is demonstrated that the vibratory effects produced by these integer wheelbase ratios are not significantly larger than the effects from other ratios far from being integer. Indeed, a number of current high-speed vehicles feature integer or near-integer wheelbase ratios, as reported in [3] below (references follow): [1] P. Museros et al. Dynamic behaviour of bridges under critical articulated trains: Signature and bogie factor applied to the review of some regulations included in EN 1991-2. PI Mech Eng F-J Rai, 2021; 235(5):655-675; [2] P. Museros et al. Dynamic effect of trains with articulated coaches and Jacobs bogies with integer wheelbase ratios. XI Int Conf on Struc Dyn EURODYN 2020; 2646-2657; [3] P. Museros et al. Dynamic behaviour of bridges under critical conventional and regular trains: review of some regulations included in EN 1991-2. PI Mech Eng F-J Rai, 2022 (submitted). When the HSLM-A model was devised, its creators envisaged that certain types of potential vehicles ought to be considered in designing railway bridges for future high-speed lines. Such types were summarised in Annex E from EN 1991-2. This dataset comprehensively covers the trains loads that can be defined from such regulations.


Steps to reproduce

Follow the specifications explained in the accompanying document “Characteristics of the high-speed trains derived from Annex E (EN1991-2).pdf”, to create a discretization of the various parameters (axle load, wheelbases, types of power car, etc.). Then, establish always the highest possible axle load that fulfils all other conditions defined in that PDF document, for each new train that is generated. Any script programming language can be used for this purpose.


Universitat Politecnica de Valencia


Railway Vehicle, Bridge Dynamics


Horizon 2020 Framework Programme


Spanish National Plan for Scientific and Technical Research and Innovation

PEICTI 2021-2023: Estancias de movilidad de profesores e investigadores en centros extranjeros de enseñanza superior e investigación; ref: PRX22/00616