Primary Life Cycle Inventory Data for Cement Production - Indian Cases

Published: 24 October 2023| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/hk9yfsdhh9.1
Anusha S. Basavaraj,


The data generated and published is the primary life cycle inventory from six Indian cement plants. We provide the data in three parts (as appendices) with information relevant to the steps followed in the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, i.e., inventory, characterization factors and impacts (carbon footprint and energy consumed). All the data presented here (in Appendix A and C) are associated with a tonne of clinker and cement (ordinary portland cement, portland pozzolana cement, portland slag cement) produced in each plant. Appendix A provides the detailed inventories (primary data) and characterization factors (based on primary and secondary sources) used in the case studies; Appendix B contains the detailed inventory, corresponding characterization factors and impact values for electricity production (per kWh) in the captive power plants of the cement plants; and Appendix C gives the impact assessment results of all the different products relevant to the case studies and for the three different systems (system boundaries) considered for the LCA.


Steps to reproduce

Proper application of life cycle assessment methodology for impact assessment relies on good data quality, along with relevant characterization factors that convert the inventory to impact indicators. Further, having representative data from relevant geographical locations and specific technologies is imperative to assess the national and regional impact contributions. This database for cement production in India can be used for LCA studies and to further change the formulations. The ab initio framework, which essentially follows the ISO guidelines was used to calculate the impacts. In this framework, a hierarchy is followed to choose the input data and characterization factors to decrease the uncertainty. The characterization factors given are specifically to estimate the CO2 emissions and energy consumed during cement production. The functional unit considered is one tonne of the product, such as clinker, ordinary portland cement (OPC), portland slag cement (PSC), portland pozzolana cement (PPC) or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The primary data was collected from four integrated cement plants, and two grinding units that procure clinker from elsewhere for the manufacturing of cement. These plants are distributed over the main cement-producing regions of India. The average annual data for the inventory was collected from each plant by sending them a questionnaire, followed by a visit to complete the details and seek clarifications. Also, the processes involved in the manufacturing of the products in the plant were observed during the visit and the appropriate process flow map was drawn up. Samples of the fuel used in the plant were collected for CHNS or ultimate analyses and bomb calorimetry to determine the carbon content and the unit calorific content, respectively. The typical diesel consumption for transportation of the materials was determined through surveys of truck drivers at each plant, and the distances travelled were calculated using a GIS software and Google Maps. Though the processes in the integrated cement plants studied here are similar, there are substantial variations in terms of type and amount of raw materials and fuels used, transportation distances, and the source and consumption of electricity. These differences will influence the impacts associated with the production of cement in a plant, resulting in the variation of the environmental impacts calculated. The data can also provide typical ranges for the impact indicators for cement production in India.


Indian Institute of Technology Madras


Sustainability, Cement Manufacture, Non-Portland Cement, Life Cycle Assessment, Energy Consumption, Primary Data, Cement Industry, Carbon Footprint