Administration of a low-cost quantitative continuous measurement of movements of the extremities of people with Parkinson’s disease
A low-cost quantitative continuous measurement of movements in the extremities of people with Parkinson’s disease was developed to enhance the gold-standard structured assessment of people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) assessed by the visual observation by the examiner of the person with PD (Goetz, et al., 2008) with the recorded output of signals to document the three dimensions of the positions in space of the finger and wrist or the toe and ankle of the participant performing tasks that may be impaired by PD (McKay, et al., 2019). The accelerometers were taped to the dorsal surface of the second (middle) phalanx of the index finger and the dorsum of the arm midway between the radius and the ulna two inches from the wrist joint to measure the movements in the upper extremity and to the dorsal surface of the proximal phalanx of the first (big) toe and the anterior surface of the tibia two inches proximal to the medial malleolus to measure the movements of the lower extremity (McKay, et al.,2019). The examiner instructed the participant how to perform each task. The examiner demonstrated the movements. The examiner did not continue to perform the movements while the participant was performing them. The examiner instructed the participant to perform each movement as quickly and fully as possible. The examiner encouraged the participant to execute each motion with the maximal speed and range of motion. The examiner sought to capture at least ten optimal repetitions for each motion. In order to attain a minimum of ten top-notch repetitions the examiner asked the participant to perform many more repetitions. The ten optimal repetitions could later be extracted for further analysis. The data shows trained examiner administering the procedures to a healthy 68-year-old male participant with typical development. The data from this procedure performed on cohorts of individuals with Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy and healthy age- and sex-matched individuals with typical development have been published (Harrigan, et al., 2020).
Steps to reproduce
The examiner is a trained rater who is certified in the administration of the Movement Disorders Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (Goetz, et al., 2008). The methods, protocols, instruments, software, and workflows have been published (McKay, et al., 2019). The procedure is conducted in a quite room with a set temperature. In order to replicate testing as closely as possible, the room, the chair, the temperature, the examiner, the technologist, and the videographer are the same for all testing sessions with all participants. The participant is seated in a straight-back chair with arms and without wheels several inches from a wall to avoid hitting the head against the wall. Spotters stand on either side to catch the participant if the participant falls. The procedure performed privately by the examiner, a technologist to record the output, and a videographer to film the movements. A caretaker or family member may remain in the room to observe the testing. All present are instructed to remain quiet and to not help the participant during the procedure. The accelerometers are attached to both upper extremities to assess the extremities sequentially. The accelerometers are not placed on the ipsilateral upper and lower extremity as demonstrated in the videos because the tasks are easier to administer and perform with the upper and lower extremities separately. Postural tremor of the hands, the five repetitive procedures, and arising from chair described in this data are drawn from the twelve tasks of a low-cost quantitative continuous measurement of movements in the extremities of people with Parkinson’s disease (McKay, et al., 2019).