Systemic Health Effects of Areca Nuts with Particular Emphasis on Carcinogenesis – A Review | IJB 2021
Areca (betel) nut (Areca catechu) is regarded as one of the most addictive masticatory substances in the world, with approximately 600 million users globally. Extensively grown and found in India, China, and Indonesia; the areca nut is also native to many other countries of the South and Southeast Asia. Its usage and beneficial effects have been reviewed for centuries. The systemic effects associated with areca nut usage have been in the limelight for many years. This review provides a narrative insight to assess and collate published data that reports the harmful effects of areca nut. An electronic search amassed literature from the NCBI and Google Scholar databases with the help of keywords. Various studies on the correlation of areca nut and its effect on the oral health, metabolism and the incidence of cancer were selected. Its usage is reported to be associated with cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus, pharynx, liver and has been declared a human group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It is also associated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Hence, there is a dire need to identify the role of the areca nut as a causative agent of cancer and several other health disorders. Clinical evidence has indicated and proved that the use of areca nut causes several types of head and neck cancers, as to effects on intracellular levels of GSH, and on the tumor-suppressing gene, P53 is quite evident clinical evidence has indicated and proved that the use of areca nut causes several types of head and neck cancers, as to effects on intracellular levels of GSH, and on the tumor-suppressing gene, P53 is quite evident.