Fatty acid profiles of milk from Holstein cows, Jersey cows, buffalos, yaks, humans, goats, camels, and donkeys based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
Due to the diversity and limitation of determination methods, published data on the fatty acid (FA) compositions of different milk samples have contributed to inaccurate comparisons. In this study, we developed a high-throughput gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method to determinate milk FA, and the proposed method had satisfactory linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. We also analyzed the FA compositions of 237 milk samples from Holstein cows, Jersey cows, buffalos, yaks, humans, goats, donkeys, and camels. Holstein, Jersey, goat, and buffalo milks contained high content of even-chain saturated FA, whereas goat milk had higher content of medium- and short-chain FA (MSCFA). Yak and camel milk are potential functional foods due to their high levels of odd- and branchedchain F A and low ratios of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Human milk contained lower levels of saturated FA, MSCFA, and conjugated linoleic acid, and higher levels of monounsaturated FA and PUFA. As a special nonruminant milk, donkey milk contained low levels of monounsaturated FA and high levels of PUFA and MSCFA. Based on the FA profiles of 8 types of milk, nonruminant milk was distinct from ruminant milk, whereas camel and yak milk were different from other ruminant milks and considered as potential functional foods for balanced human diet.