TBP O-GlcNAcylation at T114 regulates formation of the B-TFIID complex and is critical for metabolic gene regulation.
In eukaryotes, gene expression is performed by three RNA polymerases that are targeted to promoters by molecular complexes. A unique common factor, the TATA-box binding protein (TBP), is thought to serve as a platform to assemble pre-initiation complexes competent for transcription. Herein, we describe a novel molecular mechanism of nutrient regulation of gene transcription by dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of TBP. We show that O-GlcNAcylation at T114 of TBP blocks its interaction with BTAF1, hence the formation of the B-TFIID complex, and its dynamic cycling on and off of DNA. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of TBPT114A CRISPR/Cas9 edited cells showed that loss of O-GlcNAcylation at T114 increases TBP binding to BTAF1 and directly impacts expression of 408 genes. Lack of O-GlcNAcylation at T114 is associated with a striking reprograming of cellular metabolism induced by a profound modification of the transcriptome, leading to gross alterations in lipid storage.