Structural and functional abnormalities of the tongue: An epidemiological study from a tertiary center with a proposed grading system for tongue protrusion

Published: 12 December 2022| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/k3vx49rbfn.1
Ravindranath Vineetha, Mathangi Kumar,


Codes used are: Sex: Male=1; female=2 Rest of the variables: 0=absent; 1=present


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We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1143 dental outpatients above 18 years of age who visited the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology between October 2021 to February 2022. Demographic details, Medical history, drug history and habits were recorded. The clinical examination of the oral cavity and tongue was performed in accordance with WHO guidelines in a well-lit, noise and crowd free room on a dental chair with artificial lighting and a mouth mirror under aseptic conditions. Any structural abnormality of tongue related to color, texture, size, shape, appearance etc. were recorded. The tongue was checked for depapillation, coating or inflammation, any ulcers, white lesions, red patches, pigmentation, varices and growth/ swelling. If any of the mentioned changes were observed, the location, extent and surface characteristics of these lesions were recorded. Also, subjective symptoms and functional abnormalities like dysgeusia, burning tongue, taste loss, and Maximal tongue protrusion and deviation of tongue during protrusion or difficulty in protrusion were measured.


Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education


Dentistry, Epidemiology, Alcohol, Tobacco, Morphologic Abnormality, Oral Cancer, Comorbidity, Tongue