Prevalence of Postpartum depression at subnational level in India: Data extracted from 62 studies between 2015-23

Published: 25 June 2024| Version 2 | DOI: 10.17632/kk2tjv46f6.2
, KP Junaid,


Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant mental health issue impacting mothers globally, with profound implications for both maternal and infant well-being. Characterized by major depressive symptoms that can onset from delivery up to a year postpartum, PPD affects mothers' quality of life, physical and psychological health, social relationships, and maternal-infant interactions. While the global prevalence of PPD is estimated at 17.4%, higher rates are observed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with India's prevalence ranging between 18.8% and 22%. Socioeconomic disadvantages, lack of partner support, and other stressors contribute to these rates. India's diverse regional and cultural landscape likely leads to significant subnational variations in PPD prevalence. Addressing these disparities through targeted health services and resource allocation is crucial for mitigating the mental health challenges faced by mothers in India. In this backdrop, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PPD in India at national and sub-national levels and to assess the factors associated with variations in the prevalence rate of PPD across studies. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE, including studies published between 2015 and 2023. The review analysed 62 studies involving 21,262 women. Data Collection and Extraction: Data were extracted and tabulated by two reviewers (APV and KPJ). The study characteristics recorded included: - Author's name - Publication year - Study design - Study location - Study setting (e.g., hospital, community) - Study area (e.g., urban, rural) - Study population characteristics (e.g., age, socioeconomic status) - Study period (the year of data collection/analysis) - Assessment tool used for PPD (e.g., Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) - Sample size - Number of participants with PPD The extracted data were organised in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to facilitate analysis. Code description: State: AP: Andhra Pradesh BR: Bihar CH: Chandigarh DL: Delhi GJ: Gujarat HP: Himachal Pradesh HR: Haryana KA: Karnataka MH: Maharashtra MP: Madhya Pradesh OR: Odisha PB: Punjab PY: Puducherry TL: Telangana TN: Tamil Nadu UP: Utthar Pradesh WB: West Bengal Region: 0: North 1: East 2: West 3: South 4: Central Setting: 0: Facility-based 1: Community-based 2: Both Area: 0: Rural 1: Urban 2: Both Time of assessment: 0: Not within 6 weeks of postpartum 1: within 6 weeks of postpartum 2: Both Period: 0: Pre-COVID 1: Post-COVID Assessment tool: EPDS: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale PHQ: Patient Health Questionnaire HAM-D: Hamilton Rating scale for Depression MINI: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory Mode of administration: 0: Self-reported 1: Interviewer administered



Depression, India, Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis, Postnatal Maternal Health, Postnatal Mental Health