Social participation type and career adapt-ability among young adults. The mediating effect of promotional and preventive regulatory focus
The aim of the presented study was to investigate the relationship between the career adapt-ability and the implementation of developmental tasks by young adults with regard to life orientation type, and to check whether self-regulation is a mediator in the relationship between life orientation and career adapt-ability. In total, 435 young adults (274 women and 160 men) aged 18 to 34 years were included (M = 23.76; SD = 3.37). The study used the Social Participation Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz Partycypacji Społecznej – KPS) by Brzezińska, Hejmanowska and Rękosiewicz, based on the theoretical approach to life orientation by Reinders, Bergs-Winkels, Butz and Claßen, as well as the Social Participation Self-Regulation Scale by Kolańczyk, Bąk and Brzezińska, based on Higgins, and the Polish version of the CareerAdapt-Abilities Scale-5 by Savickas and Portfeli (five-factor version by Nye and colleagues). This analysis was aimed at verifying the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: The type of life orientation is significantly related to the type of social participation and career adapt-ability. It is assumed that a transitive orientation, as well as the assimilation and integration of social participation types, are positively associated with all dimensions of career adapt-ability, while the moratorium orientation, as well as the marginalization and segregation types, are negatively associated. Hypothesis 2: A significant relationship exists between self-regulation and the components of career adapt-ability: Hypothesis 2a: in the case of promotional standards, this relationship will be positive Hypothesis 2b: In the case of preventive standards, this relationship will be negative Hypothesis 3: A significant relationship exists between self-regulation and life orientations Hypothesis 3a: in the case of promotional standards, there will be a positive relationship with a transitive orientation and a negative relationship with a moratorium one Hypothesis 3b: in the case of preventive standards, there will be a positive relationship with a moratorium orientation and a negative relationship with a transitive one Hypothesis 4: Self-regulation mediates the relationship between life orientation and career adapt-ability. Due to the young age of the respondents, a significant mediation effect can be expected from promotional standards, because they are activated by the needs of growth and development and focus the individual on achieving positive results.