3D point cloud measurements of the surface of HFMI treated and untreated linear butt welds
The data consists of 3D point clouds of linear butt welds untreated or high-frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) treated. The scans have been acquired using a Wenglor MLWL131 profile sensor mounted onto a KUKA KR 60-3 industrial manipulator. The purpose of the data was to develop and validate an automated system for robotic weld toe treatment and quality assurance. A 3D surface representation of the weld allows for identifying the location of the weld toe, which can be used for automatically generating an adaptive robotic trajectory for treating the weld. Subsequently, the treated weld can be rescanned, and the quantitative quality measures (e.g., indentation depth and groove width) can automatically be determined for quality assurance. The welds have therefore been treated using three different approaches to compare the treatment quality: - Manual ("MAN"): The weld is treated manually by a human operator. - Robotic manual ("ROB_M"): The weld is treated using a robot that follows a manually programmed straight trajectory. - Robotic adaptive ("ROB_A"): The weld is treated using a robot that follows an automatically generated trajectory that is adapted to the inconsistency of the weld toe. The treatment is generated based on a point cloud of the weld. The data set consists of 36 scans, representing 50 mm sections of butt weld with two weld toes, all acquired using the same straight scanning trajectory and normal to the surface of the sample. 18 of these scans are of untreated weld, whereas the remaining 18 are HFMI treated welds. 6 scans of each treatment type: manual, robotic manual, and robotic adaptive. The data set is divided into three folders for each of the treatment types: manual, robotic manual, and robotic adaptive. Each file is structured as four columns (X, Y, Z, I), where I is the measured backscatter intensity from the laser, and named as 'treatment type-platenumber-sectionnumber-status.txt': - Treatment type (manual, robotic manual, robotic adaptive). - Plate number defining the sample number of the welded plate (1) - Section number defining the scanned section of the plate for each treatment type (1 – 6) - Status defines whether the weld is untreated or treated (before, after) Hence, the file 'ROB_M-1-1-before.txt" is the weld section that is to be treated with robotic manual, plate number 1, section 1 of the treatment type, before treatment.
Steps to reproduce
The weld is initially coated with a spray powder purposely made for 3D laser scanning to reduce the effect of spurious reflections. The sample is clamped onto a EUR-pallet with added mass for stability. The weld is first scanned, then treated, and subsequently rescanned. Both scans using the same trajectory, normal to the sample surface. The following equipment and parameters have been used: Sample: Weld type: Butt weld Material: S355 construction steel Thickness: 20 mm Length: 1500 mm Width: 600 mm Laser scanning – equipment: Manipulator: KUKA KR60-3 Scanner: Wenglor MLWL131 Laser scanning – parameters: Wavelength: 405 nm Profile spacing: 0.3 mm Exposure time: 200 μs Acquisition rate: 166 Hz Scan speed: 50 mm/s Scan length: 50 mm Scanning trajectory: Linear HFMI treatment – equipment: Tool: PITEC Weld line 10-06 Manipulator: KUKA KR60-3 Pin radius: 2 mm HFMI treatment – parameters (robotic) Treatment speed: 2.5 mm/s Work angle reference: 70 degrees Travel angle reference: 15 degrees Frequency: 90 Hz Air pressure: 7 bar HFMI treatment – parameters (manual) Treatment speed: ~2.5 mm/s Work angle: ~60 degrees Travel angle: ~20 degrees Frequency: 90 Hz Air pressure: 7 bar