Subculture and psychological outcomes
This dataset is related to study: Does Anime, Idol Culture Bring Depression? Structural Analysis and Deep Learning on Subcultural Identity and Various Psychological Outcomes. We recuite young adults (average age: 21.3; standard deviation: 4.3 years) without psychological disease in Japan by an online research company: freeasy. Depressive symptoms measured by the Beck Depression Inventory were considered as the main outcome and typically have a moderate effect (f2 = 0.15) Using G-power with an error probability of α=0.05 and 0.8 power, we calculated the lowest sample size of 90 to detect a moderate difference. To better control the response quality, we finally enrolled 300 Japanese participants. We applied the structural equation model (SEM) to test whether subcultural identity, social support, and psychological outcomes were synergistically associated. The maximum likelihood (ML) was used for estimation and testing in SEM. In this method, parameter estimates are obtained by maximizing the likelihood function derived from the multivariate normal distribution. Identity under each subculture group, social support and reputation were inputted as original value. Psychological measurements were inputted with standardized z-score due to large range differences. We focuses on the difference between subcultural groups, so we set identification with anime, idol, and hip-hop in one group to build one latent subcultural identity and fashion and sports in another. The reason for this separation is that anime and Idol's culture have consistently suggested unfavorable social fame and were responsible for school-related problems like non-attendance or isolation. Recent studies also pointed out that Hip-hop, a newly controversial topic, has related to youth delinquency, violence and health behaviors such as tobacco use. To this end, we combined Anime, Idol, and Hip-pop as ‘unfavorable’ subculture groups. Whereas Sports and Fashion usually have a favorable trend toward social reputation and physical-mental status among the youth. Therefore, we consider Sports and Fashion have different latent characteristics compared to the ‘unfavorable’ (Anime, idol and hip-hop) group. For the psychological outcomes, we categorized depression, aggression, and anxiety into adverse psychological outcome group, depression and suicide into the severe adverse psychological outcome group, and empathy into positive psychological outcome group. The reason for this arrangement is that depression, aggression, and anxiety frequently occur together clinically and are fundamentally adverse psychological symptoms. Additionally, depression is the leading cause of suicide, and suicide tendency as the severe phenotype of depressive symptoms. Whereas positive psychological outcomes should be measured separately for empathy. In total, we built 2 × 3= 6 models.