These data are related to our 2020 publication, Kowalewski et al. Development of Natural Scene Representation in Primary Visual Cortex Requires Early Postnatal Experience, Current Biology https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.10.046 Development of the visual system is shaped by early-life experience. Using 2-photon calcium imaging in mice, Kowalewski et al. find that visual experience reduces the number of neurons required to effectively encode grating stimuli and enhances natural scene representation by directly increasing V1 responsiveness to natural scene features. An example eye tracking movie is included, as well as the natural scene stimuli presented.