Published: 3 March 2023| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/m5gdc673rm.1
Femke Vandenberg,


This codebook includes a table of the codes used, the definitions of codes, examples, themes, and a brief description of the coding method. Paper title: The show must go on(line): livestreamed concerts and the hyper-ritualisation of genre conventions Dates of data collection: 20 March until 17 April 2020 Software used analysis: ATLAS.ti The codebook was used for a paper that examines audience engagement at livestreamed concerts, a form of mediatised cultural consumption that saw an immense growth in popularity during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we use microsociological approaches, from a Durkheimian and Goffmanian tradition, to analyse the social interaction seen on the chat section of livestreamed concerts on Facebook Live. We compare livestreams from classical music and Dutch levenslied. We selected livestreams from the Facebook profiles of, i) an established classical music concert hall, and ii) a radio station specialising in levenslied. To achieve a comparable sample of comments per genre, only the first five videos posted after the initial lockdown are used, spanning a period from 20 March until 17 April 2020. The final sample contained 2,075 comments (classical music n=885, levenslied n=1190). Discourse analysis is used to see how the participants use language to construct and frame their virtual concert experience. We adopted an inductive approach, starting out with a thorough reading of the synchronous comments to become familiarised with the data. The comments are seen as social practices and thus we analysed both their content (what participants talk about) and organisation (how participants communicate). An initial phase of coding was carried out, based on both the variability and consistency between the discourses used by the (classical and levenslied) audiences. This method allowed us to develop themes and patterns within the data, resulting in 24 code groupings. These groupings were then revised reflecting on the content and organisation of the comments. As regards the organisation of interaction, we paid attention specifically to the length of an interaction, distinguishing between short interaction (lasting only two comments) and prolonged interaction (lasting longer than two comments), while also taking into account how many individual audience members were involved. This resulted in three overarching themes that fall under content: i) ritual activities, ii) shared symbols, iii) expressed satisfaction/dissatisfaction of event, and three overarching themes that fall under organisation: i) interaction, ii) rhythmic entrainment, and iii) social/individual engagement.


Steps to reproduce

This codebook can be used to analyse text based online interaction within the microsociological tradition (particularly from the Durkheimian and Goffmanian approach) to understand online interaction - in relation to situational context and its ability to establish collective rhythmic entrainment among participants.


Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Erasmus School of History Culture and Communication


Music, Sociology, Discourse Analysis, Cultural Sociology, Digital Interaction, Online Interaction, Symbolic Interactionism, COVID-19