Family Context and Individual Characteristics in Antenatal Care Utilization among adolescent childbearing mothers in Urban Slums in Nigeria
A major gap in the literature is on the influence of the family context in pregnant adolescent patronage of ANC services. This study is therefore aimed at examining the influence of family context in ANC uptake among childbearing adolescents in urban slums in Nigeria. The survey used a multi-stage sampling design. At the first stage, the 3 states identified in the extant literature as accommodating the bulk of urban slums in Nigeria- Kaduna, Lagos, and Oyo states were selected. All the local government areas (LGAs) where the slums areas were located were also selected. All clusters within the LGAs designated as slum areas were selected. Individuals were randomly selected within the households in each cluster. As such, individuals were nested within clusters and clusters, nested within LGAs. The data covered a sample of 1,015, 1,009 and 1,088 childbearing adolescents with at least a child less than 5 years from Kaduna, Lagos, and Oyo states respectively. The data collection was implemented between July and October 2018. The inclusion criteria included being a teenager and having begun childbearing and having had a child during adolescence with the reference child below 5 years. The upper age limit for those who had a child during adolescence was therefore extended to 24 years to accommodate those who had a child at age 19 years with the current age of the child around 5 years. All women who had their first birth after age 19 years were excluded from the sample. Overall, about 70 percent of female adolescents in our sample had any antenatal care (ANC) visit. About 62 percent had at least 4 ANC visits, and, about 55 percent had 4 ANC visits in a health facility with skilled attendant (4ANC+). Those who have both parents alive and the mother with post-primary education have higher odds of attending 4ANC+ visits. The odds of attending 4ANC+ for those who have lost both parents is almost 60% less than those whose parents are alive, and, about 40% less than those whose mothers are alive. The influence of mother’s education on 4ANC+ attendance is more significant with a large disparity when both parents are dead. The study concludes that identifying the role of parents and community in expanding access to ANC services among adolescent mothers is important in improving maternal health in developing countries.