Monte Carlo-calculated depth distributions of K and L x-ray fluorescence generated by keV electrons incident upon thick targets made of Au, W, Rh, Mo, Cu, and Cr

Published: 3 July 2018| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/mnr2zx92h3.1
Artur Omar, Pedro Andreo, Gavin Poludniowski


Provided is the following: (1) Monte Carlo-calculated (PENELOPE [v. 2014]) K and L x-ray fluorescence differential in electron penetration depth scaled by the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) range. (2) Radiative transition data and photon mass attenuation coefficients extracted from the PENELOPE materials database. (3) An example MATLAB code that implements the provided data in an analytical model for the prediction of characteristic x-ray emission from a thick tungsten target.


Steps to reproduce

The depth distributions of x-ray fluorescence were determined (with a Type A uncertainty within 0.1%) using the PENELOPE [v. 2014] general-purpose Monte Carlo system and its main user code, penmain. The main code was modified to track the point of characteristic K and L x-ray production in a thick x-ray target for a normally incident pencil beam of electrons. The range of incident electron energies considered was from just above the L1-shell binding energy to 500 keV for tungsten and 50 keV for other materials. The MC calculations were performed with the parameter C1 (and C2) set equal to zero to treat the elastic scattering of electrons in detail (analogue technique). The electron and photon transport cut-off energies EABS(1-2) were set to just below the lowest considered shell ionization energy and characteristic x-ray energy, respectively. The energy transfer thresholds WCC and WCR were set to 1 keV, and the simulations were further optimized by enabling interaction forcing of bremsstrahlung emission and inner-shell impact ionization.


Karolinska Institutet Department of Oncology Pathology, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset


Crystallography, Fluorescence, Monte Carlo Method, X-Ray Imaging, X-Ray