Metabolomics analysis reveals differences in various flavor components in yellow- and white- fleshed cultivars during loquat fruit development
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a precious and available germplasm resource with fruits, which divided into yellow- and white-fleshed cultivars. White fleshed loquats are generally perceived to be tastier though the mechanism is uncertain. To investigate the mechanisms involved, we measured and analyzed yellow-fleshed (‘HJWH No.1’) and white-fleshed (‘WHZY’) loquat fruits using a widely-targeted metabolomic and high performance liquid phase (HPLC).The determination of its different sugar components and organic acids by liquid phase revealed that the white variety tasted better because of its lower acid content rather than its higher sugar content. Subsequently, we detected 485 metabolites includes 118 flavonoids, 62 phenolic acids, 32 organic acids, 30 nucleotides and derivatives, 28 free fatty acids, 27 carbohydrates, and other metabolites by metabolome in three fruit development periods of yellow- and white- fleshed loquat. We screened for differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) and found that a total of seven DAMs including L-cystine and other DAMs showed significant differences at all three developmental stages. At the fully ripe stage, three DAMs including Trigonelline and other DAMs were higher in WHZY. Based on all these results, a distinct model was produced to demonstrate the possible significant different flavor components between yellow- and white-fleshed loquats during fruit development. The results will be useful for aiding the cultivation of valuable new seedless loquat varieties.