The Psychometric Properties of Malay Language Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and the Prevalence of Adult ADHD and its associated factors among inmates at Seremban Prison.

Published: 25 August 2021| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/mz5w4f79b7.1


Objective This study was performed to determine the psychometric properties of Malay language ASRS and to investigate the prevalence of adults with ADHD and its associated factors among inmates. Methods This is a cross-sectional study which investigated 200 inmates using ASRS, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-items (DASS-21), Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults version 2.0 (DIVA 2.0), and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results The Malay language ASRS has good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.925 for total 18-items). The Cronbach’s α for inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscale is 0.876 and 0.863 respectively. The ASRS and DIVA yielded significant association. The test-retest reliability yielded Cronbach’s α 0.847. The exploratory factor analysis showed that 1-factor solution as the best fit. The prevalence of adult ADHD is 8% which is low as compared to previous study. This study found association between adult ADHD and antisocial personality disorder and major depressive disorder. There is high prevalence of substance use disorder (87.5%) and antisocial personality disorder (81.30%) among adults with ADHD. Conclusion The Malay language ASRS has good psychometric properties but further study on its psychometric properties in general population is needed. Further studies on the prevalence of Adult ADHD at different prison and general population are invaluable for comparison.



Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


Mental Health, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Questionnaire, Adult, Clinical Psychiatry, Validation Study