Serum levels of S-100, RAGE and SOX10 in congenital melanocytic nevi.
We explored if S-100, RAGE and SOX10 serum levels vary in children’s with congenital melanocytic nevi and assessed clinical/pathological correlations. Prospective, case-control, multicenter-study enrolling consecutive patients with congenital melanocytic nevi, healthy children and melanoma patients. S-100, RAGE and SOX10 were determined in serum. Representative tissue specimens were analyzed. CMN presented the highest levels of S-100; lower levels of RAGE; and higher levels of SOX10 than healthy children. Serial analyses showed that S-100 and SOX10 tended to decrease while RAGE increased across time and treatments. S-100 showed association with size, satellite nevi, hypertrichosis and subcutaneous tissue alterations, and multivariate analysis showed that extensive dermal nodules, >20 satellites, or at least notable hypertrichosis increased S-100 values. Higher serum levels of S-100 and SOX10 correlated with higher Melan-A+ and S-100+deep-dermis-areas; and S-100 serum levels also correlated with S-100+subcutaneous-areas. During CMN follow-up, rising serum S-100 could be an important clue. Long-term-studies are needed to understand how serum proteins vary across time in different settings, and their usefulness in CMN characterization and follow-up. However, S-100 detection could be an easy, non-invasive, affordable and useful analysis.