Supplemental materials of Regulatory T cells regulated by adenosine A2A receptor
Objective: the purpose of this study is to provide a further understanding the mechanisms of adenosine A2A receptor agonist on Treg cells and the important of adenosine A2A receptor to Treg cells. Methods: we first retrieved the GSE34006 data, which was discussed about the role of adenosine A2A receptors on regulatory T (Treg) cells, from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Then we analyzed the differential expression genes (DEGs) among groups by limma package of R software. The criterions for DEGs were adjusted P-value < 0.05 and | log2fold-change (FC) | ≥1. DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.8and BiNGO of Cytoscape 3.8.0 were used to analyze the Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways for these DEGs. STRING version 11.0 database was used to construct protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs and make the network for visualization. The Hub genes in the PPI network were determined according the degree centrality and betweenness centrality as calculated by the cytoHubba 0.1 and MCODE of Cytoscape 3.8.0. Result: There were 249 DEGs involved in Treg cells regulated by adenosine A2A receptor, including 163 genes upregulated and 86 genes downregulated. These DEGs were enriched to 75 Go terms (Biological Process 55; Cellular Component 7 and Molecular Function 13) and 5 pathways were enriched: TNF signaling pathway, TGF-beta signaling pathway, transcriptional misregulation in cancer, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and pertussis. In the PPI network, Fos, Stat5a, Crbpb and Il10 were the Hub genes and all were upregulated. Conclusion: The GO analysis and KEGG pathway enriched by DEGs may reveal the functions of adenosine A2A receptor on Treg cells and the Hub genes, Fos, Stat5a, Crbpb and Il10 were the key factors for regulation of adenosine A2A receptor on Treg cells. However, it still needs to be confirmed by the next more rigorous molecular biological experiments research.