Bullying among Elementary School Students Over Time: A Systematic Review

Published: 21 June 2021| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/n73sprwbzg.1
Contributor:
MARIELLY MANDIRA

Description

The data was compounded with longitudinal studies of bullying among Elementary School children found in empirical scientific articles published between 2013 and 2020 in peer-reviewed periodicals. The publication databases consulted were Periódicos CAPES, PsycInfo and ERIC. These databases were chosen because they contain a vast number of articles on the theme in question in various languages, and also because they encompass searches carried out in other databases, such as SCIELO and SCOPUS. The references obtained were input to the Zotero 5.0 bibliographic management program in order to eliminate duplications. Following this, two reviewers independently carried out a pre-selection of relevant references to abstract titles and abstracts, using the following inclusion/exclusion criteria. The studies had to have a longitudinal empirical design and their samples had to involve Elementary School students and the study samples needed to include at least 500 students and could not be limited to specific gender or minority groups (racial/ethnic, nationality, culture of origin, sexual orientation, disability). In the event of discrepancy between the two reviewers, the reference was put to one side for more in-depth analysis in the next stage. This process was repeated at each stage of article exclusion (reading the title, reading the abstract, and reading the method and limitations) until finally the complete texts of the pre-selected references were read. Twenty four articles were finally selected for full reading, all of which were approved as meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria and therefore comprised the final sample.

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The first search for articles was conducted between July 1st 2018 and July 31st 2018. A new search was performed between February 1st and February 28th 2020 in order to obtain more data. The following publication databases were consulted: Periódicos CAPES, PsycInfo and ERIC. The references obtained were input to the Zotero 5.0 bibliographic management program in order to eliminate duplications. Following this, two reviewers independently carried out a pre-selection of relevant references to abstract titles and abstracts, using the following inclusion/exclusion criteria: The studies had to have a longitudinal empirical design and their samples had to involve Elementary School students. In this way, theoretical studies, meta-analyses, cross-sectional, qualitative, exploratory, quasi-experimental, action research and pilot studies were excluded. Studies were also excluded which focused on teachers, parents, instrument validation or students from other education levels (e.g. infant education). The study samples needed to include at least 500 students and could not be limited to specific gender or minority groups (racial/ethnic, nationality, culture of origin, sexual orientation, disability). In the event of discrepancy between the two reviewers, the reference was put to one side for more in-depth analysis in the next stage. This process was repeated at each stage of article exclusion (reading the title, reading the abstract, and reading the method and limitations) until finally the complete texts of the pre-selected references were read, thus resulting in the final sample. After selecting references that comprised the final sample, relevant information was retrieved from the complete texts. A form was therefore designed to collect the following information: code given to the article, reviewer, year of publication, journal, language, number of subjects analyzed, age range, country, instruments, data acquisition procedure, data analysis procedure, and main results. Initially 631 articles were selected for reading from the three databases. After applying Zotero 5.0 and checking for duplications, 187 articles were excluded, leaving 444 article titles selected for reading and analysis. In this stage the researchers excluded articles with titles that did not meet the inclusion criteria. i.e. the titles indicated that they were reviews, systematic reviews, cross-sectional, exploratory or pilot studies. Twenty four articles were finally selected for full reading, all of which were approved as meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria and therefore comprised the final sample.