Anti-venom potentials of Toona ciliata against cobra venom and chemical constituents of its essential and non-volatile oils
There are high mortality and morbidity rates due to poisonous snakebites globally with sub-Saharan Africa having some of the highest cases. Uganda is one the tropical countries with many poisonous snakes causing serious health hazards. Antivenin serum is the only remedy available to treat snakebite victims successfully to date. Infusion of antivenin drugs may lead to adverse reactions ranging from severe itching of the skin, hives to potentially serious allergic reactions. Due high cost and lack of antivenin drugs in residents of rural communities in Uganda, herbalists use different herbal formulations to treat snakebite victims. This study was conducted to search of a cheap, readily available and easy formulate remedies for treating snakebite victims. Root bark of Toona ciliata which is one of many plants used by herbalist was chosen for analysis of its anti-venom potentials. The aqueous extract of T. ciliata was tested for anti-venom potential against forest cobra (Naja melanoleuca) by both in-vivo and in-vitro methods. Chemical constituents of essential and non-volatile oils of T. ciliata were analysed using GC-MSMS and identified using Wiley Library of Mass Spectra database of the GC/MS system.
Steps to reproduce
In-vivo neutralization of N. melanoleuca venom was performed using groups of rats. Four rats of either sex (n = 4) were placed in each group. Venom was milked and lyophilized. The lyophilized venom was dissolved in normal saline just like dried aqueous extract of T. ciliata. The test substances, and controls were all administered) through the intramuscular route (i.m) as follows: Group I, control (normal saline only as solvent), group II control (venom + normal saline) and several groups were injected with venom followed by oral treatment with aqueous extract. In another experiment, a mixture of venom and aqueous plant extract, incubated for 20 minutes were administered i.m to a group of mice and observed for 24 hours. In-vitro anti-venom potentials of T. ciliata against venom were performed. Neutralisation of inhibitory blood coagulation activities of venom and inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity of venom were performed at varied concentration of aqueous extract.