Surfactant proteins changes after acute hemodynamic improvement in patients with advanced chronic heart failure treated with Levosimendan
Alveolar-capillary membrane evaluated by carbon monoxide diffusion (DLCO) plays an important role in heart failure (HF). Surfactant Proteins (SPs) have also been suggested as a worthwhile marker. In HF, Levosimendan improves pulmonary hemodynamics and reduces lung fluids but associated SPs and DLCO changes are unknown. Sixty-five advanced HF patients underwent spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and SPs determination before and after Levosimendan. Levosimendan caused natriuretic peptide-B (BNP) reduction, peakVO2 increase and VE/VCO2 slope reduction. Spirometry improved but DLCO did not. SP-A, SP-D and immature SP-B reduced (73.7±25.3 vs. 66.3±22.7ng/mL*, 247±121 vs. 223±110ng/mL*, 39.4±18.7 vs. 34.4±17.9AU*, respectively); while mature SP-B increased (424±218 vs. 461±243ng/mL, *=p<0.001). Spirometry, BNP and CPET changes suggest hemodynamic improvement and lung fluid reduction. SP-A, SP-D and immature SP-B reduction indicates a reduction of inflammatory stress; conversely mature SP-B increase suggests alveolar cell function restoration. In conclusion, acute lung fluid reduction is associated with SPs but not DLCO changes. SPs are fast responders to alveolar-capillary membrane condition changes.