Despotism In Some Samples of The Modern Arab Novel

Published: 17 October 2023| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/nndtzrc9p2.1
Hajir Mahmoud Ali


Despotism has existed since the dawn of humanity, and it has been linked to different mechanisms of suppression for the purpose of imposing the despot's administration by force, not through dialogue and argument. Cain's killing of his brother Abel was nothing but despotism of opinion, imposing it by force or canceling the other. In this research, we dealt with authoritarian and social tyranny, and how to describe despotism and despot in the Arabic novel, and we used the analytical approach of the characters, and the impact of temporal and spatial despotism on the hearts of the narrative characters. We concluded the research with a conclusion with the most important results we reached and a list of the sources we relied on. Keywords— Despotism, Social, Time, Place


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Despotism is a lethal disease for societies, and today it has become a problem in our Arab society, and the linguistic meanings of the word "Despotism" in Arabic dictionaries indicate to the monopoly of opinion, giving orders without the approval of others, and not accepting advice in affairs (Ibn Mandhour.1081). The term "Despotism" has gone through many stages, the word (despot) in the English language is derived from the Greek word (despot), which is called the head of the family or the master (Al-Hindawi, Dr. Hussein ,2016)Plato is the first to talk about despotism and despot(Al-Hasani,2007), while Aristotle used the term despotism to indicate to the worst types of government, because it destroys humanity(Al-Hasani,2007), In modern Western thought, Montesquieu is the first to use the word despotism indicating to the despotic ruler in his opinion(Al-Hindawi, Dr. Hussein ,2016)while (Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi) is the first Arab thinker in the modern age who wrote on the subject of despotism and its general connotations, which brought him out of political despotism only (Al-Kawakibi,2013) . The word "despotism" has been mixed with other concepts, such as tyranny and suppression, because it is any act or speech that is harmful to others (Ali Kamal 1989). Psychology and sociology look to despotism as a behavior that is based on force and physical and psychological violence, in order to control the others and enslave them, to achieve power and social status(8). This behavior may form in the individual due to socialization, frustration, and imitation of others(9), and because literature and art are the tongue of the oppressed and the deprived of will ones, a lot has been written about despotism and the suppression of freedoms. Perhaps the most important of these novels in world literature are the novel (1984) by the writer (George Orwell)(10), the novel (The Goat’s Party) by (Mario Bagos Yosa)(11), and the novel (Autumn of the Patriarch) by the writer (Gabriel Garcia Marquez)(12). As for the Arabic novel, it tried to touch the world of the despot, the mechanisms of despotism and its Res Militaris, vol.12, n°1, Winter-Spring 2022 247 appearances, and their political and social personality, then to temporal and spatial despotism


University of Baghdad


Art Criticism