The Role of Different Levels of Cognitive, Emotional, and Spiritual Development in Adults Psychological Well-being

Published: 13 July 2022| Version 2 | DOI: 10.17632/nr9388gbzf.2
Neda Mellat,
, Masoud Gholamali Lavasani, Esmaeil sadipour,


The Role of Different Levels of Cognitive, Emotional, and Spiritual Development in Adults Psychological Well-being The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between different levels of cognitive, emotional, and spiritual development with adult psychological well-being. A sample consisted of 700 adults in ages between (20 - 60 years). Research data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The findings showed that relativistic thought affects stress, empathy, and emotion regulation difficulties. Dialectical thought has a positive effect on empathy and spiritual well-being. Egocentrism has a positive effect on emotion regulation difficulties and spiritual weakness and a negative effect on Spiritual well-being. Stress has a positive effect on emotion regulation difficulties. Emotion regulation difficulties positively affect spiritual weakness and negatively affect Spiritual well-being. Empathy has a positive effect on spiritual well-being. Spiritual weakness positively affects aggression, depression, and maladaptive hedonism, it negatively affects altruism. Spiritual well-being negatively affects depression and maladaptive hedonism and positively affects resilience, altruism, and gratitude. Keywords: postformal thought; spiritual well-being; empathy; difficulties in emotion regulation; psychological well-being Participants The statistical population of this study included adults at ages 20 to 60 years. 700 individuals (318 men and 382 women) were selected using a random sampling method. Measures In this study, we utilized the Social Paradigm Belief Inventory (Kramer et al., 1992). This inventory consist of absolute, relativistic, and dialectical thought methods. Interpersonal Reactivity Index measures four aspects of empathy. The total score of the three first subscales was utilized. Spiritual Health and Life-Orientation Measure (SHALOM) developed by Gomez and Fisher (2003). (SCL-90-R) was developed by Clinical Psychometric Research (Derogates, 1994). The subscale of depression was used in this study. Bryant and Smith (2001) developed a Short form of BUSS & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The Spiritual Assessment Inventory is a self-report measure. We used the subscales of disappointment and instability. Total score of two subscales named as spiritual weakness. Gratz and Roemer (2004) developed emotion regulation difficulties Questionnaire. We utilized three subscales . Machiavellian Egocentricity subscale of Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPIR) developed by Sörman et al. (2016). Lovibond and Lovibond (1995) developed (DASS-21). We used the stress subscale. The short form of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale developed by Campbell- Sills and Stein (2007). Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) developed by McCullough et al. (2002).This questionnaire consists of six items. Maladaptive hedonism developed by Ksendzova et al. (2015).



Allameh Tabatabai University Faculty of Psychology and Education


Psychology, Psychoanalysis, Psychopathy