Multidimensional analysis of the impact of financial literacy, remittances and digital financial inclusion on household welfare inequalities
Equal access to affordable and useful financial services for all individuals and businesses, regardless of their size or income level, is a key concept that encompasses both traditional banking services and alternative financial solutions. This study investigates the impact of digital financial inclusion, the multidimensional nature of financial literacy, and remittances on household welfare inequalities in Togo, highlighting the disparities related to gender and place of residence. The results indicate that digital financial inclusion and remittances reduce inequality, particularly for women and low-income households. However, the impact of financial literacy is unclear and varies according to gender and time. Nevertheless, disparities between rural and urban settings limit the equalizing effects of digital financial inclusion. These findings underscore the importance of addressing rural-urban disparities, strengthening women’s empowerment programs in rural areas, and enhancing rural financial and digital education to optimize the effects of digital financial inclusion and remittances on reducing welfare inequalities.