Data set on Insecticidal Activity of Lantana Camara Extract oil on Controlling Maize grain weevils
Currently farmers are faced by serious post-harvest problems from weevils especially in storage of grains. When grain is attacked by weevils, they become less marketable and this causes economic loss to the producers and quality loss to the consumers. As a result of these problems, many farmers prefer to sell most of their crop immediately after harvesting to avoid making losses from the infestation of the weevils. Maize has ability to be stored for long period for latter consumption or to look for good price. However, it suffer major economic loss caused by grain infesting insects because of cumulative effects of feeding, breeding, transmission of toxic and saprophytic fungi and associated changes in the micro-ecological conditions in the grain bulk, which hasten the deterioration process in the grain. Various control methods are available for use in storage systems in numerous and diverse with their environmental factors for the post-harvest system. Insect pests have been prevented principally by synthetic insecticides chemicals such as DDT, Malataine and others. However, this continued and wide spread use of synthetic insecticides chemicals has given rise to the development of resistance, pest resurgence, lethal effects on non-target organisms, toxic residues, worker safety. The chemicals contaminate stored food commodity, leaving behind harmful residue in health, causes cancer. The use of botanical extract crude oil and powder is suitable for grain protection from infested insects. It would be increase demand and experience in the use of these eco-friendly natural products, which could replace synthetic chemicals for management stored grain protection from weevils including the development of non-chemical technologies which may eliminate the use of insecticides and have economic and health benefits for applicators, consumers and the environment. The operational parameters for repellency and mortality of weevils are effect of extract oil concentration (0% (w/w), 2% (w/w), 3% (w/w), 5% (w/w), 7% (w/w), and 10% (w/w), exposed time (1-5 days), and type of extract solvents (methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate) were investigated. Repellency effect was also conducted at 6, 12 and 24 h at different concentration oil. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify the chemical composition and Functional group of solvent extracted oil respectively. The number of weevil’s death increases significantly as exposed time increases. The extracted oil by the three-solvent fraction had direct repellent and toxic effect to the weevil. From all treatment applied, extracted by methanol fraction had showed highest percentage mortality (74%). The lowest mortality rate was observed in ethyl acetate fraction oil (26%), at 2% (w/w) concentration. The effect of lantana Camara leaf powder and extracted oil on repellency and mortality was showed directly proportional to concentration dosage.
Steps to reproduce
Fresh, mature and healthy green leaves of Lantana C. were collected from shrubs of invaded forest area in Woreta, north Gondar, Ethiopia during a month of August to December 2018. All laboratory grade reagents such as methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and acetone and distill water were used research grad laboratory. The fresh collected leaves were washed properly to remove some external dust particle and were dried in shade dark place at ambient temperature for 13 days before extraction oil to prevent the oxidation in sun light. The shade dried leaves of the plant were finely grounded to powder using mortar and pestle. The powder was sieved through 0.5 mm size mesh to get uniform particle size. Further the grounded powder was stored in dark and cool place and kept in air tight which is away from sunlight and properly sealed to prevent quality loss. Soxhlet apparatus extraction method was used to extract the oil from the leaf. 50 g of Lantana C. leaf powder was extracted through various solvents (methanol, ethanol, and ethyl acetate) for maximum extraction time carried out 5 to 6 h. The concentration was used 100 mg/ml, which is 50 g powder of Lantana C. leaf was mixed into 500 ml solvents. Rearing of the weevils in massive was necessary to make continuous supply of the test weevils during study. Maize grain was used as the growth medium for formation of adult weevils. Heavily infected grains weevils were collected from local farmer house together with the grain and screen out them from already the infested grain. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis of solvent extract oil was carried out using Shimadzu FTIR– 8400s Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, Japan. The FTIR spectrum was used to identify the functional group of the cellulose components based on the peak value in the region of infrared radiation. The extracted crude oil was encapsulated in 100 mg of KBR pellet carried out by scanning the samples through wave number rage of 400 to 4000 cm-1. GC-MS analysis was performed on an Agilent/5975C -GC/MSD instrument (Agilent Technology, USA) coupled with a HP-5MS fused silica capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm. Identification of the compounds was based on the molecular structure, molecular mass, Retention time and calculated fragments.