High-resolution Sea Surface Temperature record in the Central Mediterranean across the Pliocene/Pleistocene transition

Published: 3 July 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/p9skmbtb5w.1


The present dataset provides the first high-resolution record of alkenone-derived Sea Surface Temperature (SST) estimates across the Pliocene/Pleistocene transition (ca. 2.6 – 2.5 Ma) that was reconstructed for the Monte San Nicola section (Sicily, Southern Italy), reference area for the Gelasian GSSP (Rio et al., 1998; Capraro et al. 2022). We also include C37 (tetra-, tri-, di-unsaturated) alkenones concentrations and the planktonic δ18O record for the surface dweller G. ruber. The Pliocene/Pleistocene was characterized by the intensification of a long-term global cooling trend that eventually culminated in the definitive onset of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation at ca. 2.5 Ma. Investigations performed so far on Mediterranean sections straddling the event provided evidence of a manifold climatic response across the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary, which was however not documented by means of high-resolution studies. The high temporal resolution of the record presented here (~700 yr/sample; Zanola et al. 2024) allowed recognizing significant both the major and small-scale details on the regional and global climatic evolution across the interval of relevance.


Steps to reproduce

We employed here the same set of samples studied by Zanola et al. (2024), which were collected at Monte San Nicola in the lower part of the “Mandorlo” section of Capraro et al. (2022). The age model used is that previously presented in Zanola et al. (2024). 200 samples were analysed for the C37 alkenones content following the traditional procedure of Villanueava et al., 1997 described by Rodrigues et al., 2009. Oxygen stable isotopes analysis was conducted on specimens of G. ruber, prior specific cleaning treatment according to the classical foraminiferal tests cleaning protocol (Shackleton et al., 1995).


Universita degli studi di Padova Dipartimento di Geoscienze


Geology, Biogeochemistry, Mediterranean Region, Climate Change, Sea Surface Temperature, High-Resolution Method, Paleoclimatology