Pingyin Rose Essential Oil Restores Intestinal Barrier Integrity in DSS-induced Mice Colitis Model
Introduction: Rosa rugosa cv. Plena is a ‘drug homologous food’ in China with a long history. Pingyin rose essential oil (PREO) is a mixture of compounds extracted from blooming R. rugosa cv. Plena. With its elegant smell and excellent effects on oxidative stress and inflammation alleviation, PREO is wildly used in the food industry as a popular additive. We aimed to decipher if the PREO could alleviate and restore DSS-induced barrier integrity damages. The results showed that a 7-day PREO treatment alleviated the colitis symptoms and improved permeability depending on gene expressions. Methods: There are total five groups: Control (S1-S3), DSS model group(S4-S6), Mesalazine (60mg/kg) standard drug group(S7-S9) , 5μL/kg PREO group (S10-S12) and 15μL/kg PREO group (S13-S15).The distal colon sample was divided into two parts and was collected in RNase-free 1.5 mm tubes. One part (n=3) was subjected to transcriptome analysis from each group. According to sequencing by synthesis (SBS) Technology, the Illumina high-throughput sequencing platform sequenced the cDNA library where base quality scores can reach or exceed Q30. The edgeR was used for analysis between sample groups to attain differentially expressed gene (DEG) sets between two biological conditions. To detect DEGs, the Fold Change=1.5 and p-value≤0.05 were determined as the screening criteria. False Discovery Rate (FDR) was obtained through a significant difference in p-value calibration. Pathway significant enrichment analysis was done by taking Pathway in the KEGG database as the unit, to find pathways that are significantly enriched in DEGs compared with the background of the entire genome(Kanehisa et al., 2008). Results: According to our extensive transcriptome analysis, PREO revealed their relevancy in anti-inflammation significantly. DSS upregulated 1041 DEGs than the control group while PREO downregulated 670 DEGs compared to the DSS group (p≤0.05; FC=1.5). The KEGG enrichment presented in DSS-induced mice showed high enrichment in different inflammatory pathways while PREO and mesalazine lowered the enrichments. PREO (15μL/kg) revealed the downregulation of most of the DEGs involved in inflammatory responses . According to transcriptome analysis, Lbp, Prss3, Reg2, Reg3b, Reg3g, CxCl9, and CxCl10 were the significant genes that were over-expressed by LPS. There were several inflammatory signaling pathways like MAPK, NF-κB, IL-17, Chemokine signaling, JAK-STAT, TNF-α, Mucin biosynthesis, tight Junction, etc. Several digestive pathways, such as carbohydrate, cholesterol, and protein metabolisms, were also significantly upregulated by LPS. However, proteins from Lbp, Prss3, Reg2, Reg3b, Reg3g, CxCl9, and CxCl10 were connected in one protein-protein interaction network (PPI). PREO remarkably downregulated all these genes and pathways.