Navigating ‘C’ of the Spices Model in Twin Cities of Pakistan

Published: 10 November 2023| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/pw7kcfhh4y.1
Irum Gilani


This qualitative data was collected to explore practices regarding community–based activities (CBAs) of the undergraduate outcome–based integrated curriculum in medical colleges of twin cities (Rawalpindi–Islamabad) of Pakistan. The study identifies gaps and recommendations for implementing community–oriented and community–based medical education (COME & CBME) at the undergraduate level in Pakistan. The analysis shows that the lack of learning outcomes, assessment strategies, and supervisory structure hindered any improvement in the CBAs. The dominance of the clinical faculty and the Community Medicine faculty's limited motivation were identified as significant challenges hindering advancement in the CBME. The regulatory authority was proposed to combat pre–clinical versus clinical dilemmas and interdisciplinary and interprofessional issues, including multi–sectoral and community engagement challenges faced by the COME in Pakistan.


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1. 'M' is the code used for a medical college. For example, M1 is the first of the four medical colleges/institutions where FGIs (Focus Group Interviews) were held, and so on. 2. 'P' denotes the participant, e.g., P1 is the first participant of the 15 participants. 3. P6 M2 is a combination participant-institution code, which means the sixth participant from the second institution.


Education in Health Care Profession