Data and code for "Gene-environment interactions explain a substantial portion of variability of common neuropsychiatric disorders"

Published: 5 August 2022| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/r4r8j6mswx.1
Hanxin Zhang


In most complex diseases, the proportion of phenotypic variability that can be explained by interactions between genetic variation and environmental stimuli (G-by-E effects) remains unknown. In this study, we study ten major neuropsychiatric disorders using data for 138 thousand US families, with nearly half a million unique individuals. We further show that, while gene-environment interactions account for only a small portion of the total phenotypic variance for a subset of disorders (depression, adjustment disorder, substance abuse), they explain a rather large quantity of the remaining disorders: over 20 percent for ADHD, migraine, and anxiety/phobic disorder, and close to 30 percent for recurrent headaches, sleep disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In this study, we have incorporated – in the same analysis – clinical data, family pedigrees, the spatial distribution of individuals, their socioeconomic and demographic confounders, and a comprehensive collection of raw environmental measurements.



University of Chicago


Genetics, Gene-Environment Interaction, Neuropsychiatric Disorder, Bayesian Inference, Heritability, Computational Biology, Mixed Model