A Novel PLOD1 Gene Mutation causing Kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome in Chinese patient
Kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (kEDS) is a rare autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by progressive kyphoscoliosis, congenital muscular hypotonia, marked joint hypermobility, and severe skin hyperextensibility and fragility. Deficiency of lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1) due to mutations of PLOD1 (procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1) gene has been identified as the pathogenic cause of kEDS (kEDS-PLOD1). Up to now, kEDS-PLOD1 has not been reported among Chinese population. We reported a 17-year-old Chinese male patient presenting with hypotonia, joint hypermobility and scoliosis was referred to our hospital. After birth, he was found to have severe hypotonia leading to delayed motor development. Subsequently, joint hypermobility, kyphoscoliosis and amblyopia were found. Inguinal hernia was found at age 5 years and closed by surgery. At the same time, he presented with hyperextensible and bruisable velvety skin with widened atrophic scarring after minor trauma. Dislocation of elbow joint was noted at age of 6 years. Orthopedic surgery for correction of kyphoscoliosis was performed at age 10 years. His family history was unremarkable. Physical examination revealed elevated blood pressure. Slight facial dysmorphologies including high palate, epicanthal folds, and down-slanting palpebral fissures were found. He also had blue sclerae with normal hearing. X-rays revealed severe degree of scoliosis and osteopenia. The Echocardiography findings were normal. Laboratory examination revealed a slightly elevated bone turnover. Based on the clinical manifestations presented by our patient, kEDS was suspected. Genetic analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation of PLOD1 (c.1697 G>A, p.C566Y) (NM_000302.4), confirming the diagnosis of kEDS-PLOD1. Corresponding heterozygous mutation was detected in his parents. This variant is possibly causative for kEDS because it was predicted to be “PROBABLY DAMAGING” with a score 0.999 by Polyphen‐2, “AFFECT PROTEIN FUNCTION” with a score 0.00 by SIFT, and “disease causing” by Mutation Taster.