Feeding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product during an intestinal barrier challenge in lactating Holstein cows impacts the ruminal microbiota and metabolome

Published: 16 May 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/rgzcr6ckj2.1
Qianming Jiang,


Through its influence on the gut microbiota, feeding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) has been a successful strategy to enhance the health of dairy cows during periods of physiological stresses. Although production and metabolic outcomes from feeding SCFP are relatively well-known, combined impacts on the ruminal microbiota and metabolome during intestinal barrier challenges remain unclear. To address this gap in knowledge, multiparous Holstein cows (97.1 ± 7.6 DIM; n = 8/group) fed a control diet (CON) or CON plus 19 g/d SCFP for 9 wk were subjected to a feed restriction (FR) challenge for 5 d, during which they were fed 40% of their ad-libitum intake from the 7 d prior to FR. DNA extracted from ruminal fluid was subjected to PacBio Full-Length 16S rRNA gene sequencing, RT-PCR of 12 major ruminal bacteria, and metabolomics analysis of up to 189 metabolites via GC-MS. High-quality amplicon sequence analyses were performed with Targeted Amplicon Diversity Analysis (TADA), MicrobiomeAnalyst, PICRUSt, and STAMP software, while metabolomics data were analyze via MetaboAnalyst 5.0. Ruminal fluid metabolites from the SCFP group exhibited a greater alpha diversity Chao 1 (P = 0.03) and Shannon indices (P = 0.05), and the PLS-DA analysis clearly discriminated metabolite profiles between dietary groups. The abundance of CPla_4_termite_group, Candidatus_Saccharimonas, Oribacterium, and Pirellula genus in cows fed SCFP was greater. In the SCFP group, concentrations of ethanolamine, 2-amino-4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine, glyoxylic acid, serine, threonine, cytosine, stearic acid, and pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid were greater in ruminal fluid. Both Fretibacterium and Succinivibrio abundance were positively correlated with metabolites across various biological processes: gamma-aminobutyric acid, galactose, butane-2,3-diol, fructose, 5-amino pentanoic acid, beta-aminoisobutyric acid, ornithine, malonic acid, 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, cadaverine, glycolic acid, beta-alanine, 2-hydroxybutyric acid, methyl alanine, and alanine. In the SCFP group, compared with CON, the mean proportion of 14 predicted pathways based on metabolomics data was greater, while 10 predicted pathways were lower. Integrating metabolites and upregulated predicted enzymes (NADP+-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, serine: glyoxylate aminotransferase, and D-glycerate 3-kinase) indicated that the pentose phosphate pathway and photorespiration pathway were most upregulated by SCFP. Overall, SCFP during FR led to alterations in ruminal microbiota composition and key metabolic pathways. Among those, there was a shift from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to the glyoxylate cycle and nitrogenous base production was enhanced. The utilization of metatranscriptomics and bacterial culture techniques could aid in evaluating the functional significance of these changes.



Microbiome, Animal Feed, Dairy Cattle