Somatotype & BIVA Crossfit

Published: 12 March 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/rs8zkcp6mp.1
Gabriele Mascherini,


145 Italians CrossFit® practitioners, 107 men (age: 30.7 ± 8.4 years; BM: 81.9 ± 14.7 kg; stature: 177.3 ± 6.0 cm) and 38 women (age: 28.1 ± 6.7 years; BM: 65.5 ± 10.1 kg; stature: 166.2 ± 6.3 cm). The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) being well-trained, which means training for at least 10 hours per week (comprising 5 sessions of approximately 2 hours each, involving a mix of endurance and resistance exercises), or having competed at the national level; (2) absence of injuries or any clinical condition at the time of the study; (3) refraining from current pharmacological therapy and medication intake within the preceding 48 hours; (4) for females, to be in a postmenarcheal state; (5) to not be under contraceptive or menstrual cycle pharmacological regulator treatment. The CrossFit® training program combines workouts consisting of the main lifts (such as deadlifts, cleans, squats, and snatches), bodyweight exercises (pull-ups, dips, rope climbs, push-ups, sit-ups, flips), and endurance (cycling, running, swimming, rowing). Five or six days a week, these elements are mixed in various high-intensity proposals. This study was conducted with a sample of CrossFit® athletes from the same gym. Participant recruitment occurred at the start of the season and data collection for the study was completed within the following month. All the anthropometric and bioelectrical evaluations were taken in the morning at rest, in fasting conditions, and before the first training session of the day. Participants were also required to abstain from caffeine, alcohol, and exercise the day before BIA measurements while maintaining their normal dietary regimen.


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Anthropometric measurements All anthropometric variables were measured according to the protocol of the International Society of the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) (Stewart et al., 2011) by a level 2 anthropometrism with a certified intra-tester target % technical error of measurement lower than 7.5% for skinfolds and 1.55 for other measures. Athletes wore light clothing for the procedures. Stature and body mass (BM) were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg using a stadiometer with a balance-beam scale (Seca 200, Seca, Hamburg, Germany). Ten skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, biceps, abdominal, supraspinal, iliac crest, thigh, calf, pectoral, and axillar), five girths (waist, hips, arm relaxed, thigh middle, and calf), three breadths (Bi-styloid, femur, and humerus) were measured on the right side of the body. Skinfold thickness was recorded to the nearest 0.2 mm using a skinfold caliper (Holstein Tanner/Whitehouse, Crosswell, Crymych, Pembs., SA41 3UF, UK). Girths were determined to the nearest 0.1 cm using a flexible anthropometric steel tape measure (Cescorf, Porto Alegre, Brazil). The breadths were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using a bone caliper (Cescorf, Porto Alegre, Brazil). The measures were measured three times at each site in a rotation system, and a certified specialist performed all the anthropometric measurements. The sum of six skinfolds was calculated as the sum of triceps, subscapular, supraspinal, abdominal, thigh, and calf skinfolds. Selected anthropometric measures were used to determine somatotype following the methods of Carter & Heath. At the same time, they were classified into seven larger groups for the 13 somatotype categories defined by Carter and Heath. Bioelectrical measurements. R and Xc were measured using a BIA 101 Anniversary Sport Edition analyzer (Akern Srl, Florence, Italy) that emitted a 400 mA alternating sinusoidal current at 50 kHz (±0.1%). This device was previously calibrated with a known impedance circuit provided by the manufacturer, whose impedance values were R = 383 ± 10 Ω and Xc = 45 ± 5 Ω and a coefficient of variation of 0.2. Participants were tested according to the manufacturer guidelines, that is to say, with their arms and legs kept from touching the body by non-conductor foam objects to prevent adduction or the crossing of the limbs. Bioelectrical measurements were recorded after a stabilization period of 5 min, in which the participants remained motionless to ensure the proper distribution of body fluids. Injector electrodes (Biatrodes Akern Srl, Firenze, Italia) were placed on the dorsal surface of the right hand (proximal to the third metacarpal-phalangeal joint) and foot (proximal to the third metatarsal-phalangeal joint). The detector electrodes were placed proximally 5 cm from the injector to prevent interaction between electric fields, possibly leading to overestimating the impedance values.


Impedance, Athletes, Assessment of Body Composition, Somatotype