Frontline nurses’ burnout, anxiety, depression, fear status and their associated factors during COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China: A big-scale cross-sectional study

Published: 24 March 2020| Version 2 | DOI: 10.17632/rznwtdmxz4.2
Jiemin zhu


Our research questions were: (a) What are the levels of burnout, anxiety, depression, fear, skin lesion, self-efficacy, resilience, social support among frontline nurses caring for COVID-19 patients? (b) What are the prevalence of burnout, anxiety, depression, and fear among the frontline nurses? (c) What are the differences in burnout, anxiety, depression and fear between nurses’ various sociodemographic and other COVID-related background subgroups? (d) What are the relationships between burnout, anxiety, depression, fear and other aforementioned variables? We found that On average, participants had moderate level of burnout and high level of fear. About half of nurses reported modereate/high work burnout as shown in emotional exhaustion (1,218, 60.5%), depersonalization (853, 42.3%) and personal accomplishment (1,219, 60.6%). Findings showed that 288 (14.3%), 217 (10.7%) and 1,837 (91.2%) reported moderate/high levels of anxiety, depression and fear, respectively. The majority of nurses (n=1,910, 94.8%) had one or more skin lesions, and 1,950 (96.8%) nurses expressed their willingness in participating frontline work. The mental health outcomes were statistically positively correlated with skin lesion, and negatively correlated with self-efficacy, resilience, social support, and their frontline work willingness.


Steps to reproduce

This study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Wuhan, China, which received patients with COVID-19 infection in February 2020. The online questionnaire survey was developed by the research team using the online platform called “Questionnaire Star”. After obtaining the ethical approval from the participating hospitals, the directors of nursing of both hospitals were informed about the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. They distributed the online survey to the Webchat Group of frontline nurses caring for patients with COVID-19 infection on 13 February 2020. 2132 nurses completed the survey by 23 February 2020.


Xiamen University