Data. Physicochemical characteristics of the soil in silvopastoral systems
Anthropogenic activity has been degrading vegetation cover in order to initiate diverse agricultural and livestock activities. Silvopastoral systems (SPS) are an alternative to reduce the negative effects generated by cattle raising. However, the relationship between trees and soil characteristics is poorly unknown. We evaluated the effect of silvopastoral systems [SPS Bolaina (Guazuma crinite Mart), Teca (Tectona grandis LF), Arboretum, Pucaquiro (Síckingia tínctoría), Quinilla (Manilkara bidentata) and Natural Forest] on the physicochemical characteristics of the soil in a cattle system at the tropical region of Peru. We used a completely randomized design with six treatments, two replications and the experimental units were sampled from 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm.
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Five silvopastoral systems (SPS) and one Natural Forest (BN) were evaluated at the El Porvenir Agricultural Experimental Station of the National Institute for Agricultural Innovation of Peru. These systems have the following characteristics: The SPS with Bolaina (G. crinita Mart) consisted of trees in strips of 3m by 3m between plants. The trees were planted in 2009 and were 23 years old at the time of sampling. The SPS with Teca (Tectona grandis LF) consisted of trees in live fences with 5 m between plants. The trees were planted in 2009 and were 23 years old at the time of sampling. The Arboretum SPS consisted of Estoraque (Myroxylon balsamum), Caoba (Swietenia macrophylla), Capirona (Calycophyllum spruceanum), Bolaina (Guazuma crinita Mart), Marupa (Simarouba amara), Quinilla (Manilkara bidentata), Manchinga (Brosimum alicastrum), Paliperro (Barbeyana cogniaux), Ishpingo (Amburana cearensis), Shihuahuaco (Dipteryx odorata), Huayruro (Ormosia Coccinea), Tahuarí (Tabebuia serratifolia) and Cedro (Cedrela odorata). The trees were planted in 3m by 3m strips and were 11 years old at the time of sampling. The SPS with Pucaquiro (S. tínctoría) consisted of trees in strips of 3m by 3m between plants. The trees were 28 years old at the time of sampling. The SPS with Quinilla (M. bidentata) were plants maintained by anthropogenic activity, the proportion of trees was 5 units per hectare and had an average age of 80 years. The Natural Forest consisted of different species. The floristic composition of the systems consisted mainly of grasses such as Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandú, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Toledo and Brachiaria hibrido cv. Cobra, and shrubs species such as Huarango (Prosopis pallida). The research was conducted under a completely randomized design with six treatments (five SPS and one Natural Forest) and two replications. Soil sampling was carried out in an average area of 2 ha for each system. Samples were collected at two depths, 0 - 10 cm and 10 - 20 m, with two replications for each depth and system using a zigzag transect. The samples were analyzed at the Soil, Water and Foliar Laboratory of the El Porvenir Agricultural Experimental Station of the National Institute for Agricultural Innovation. The parameters evaluated and their methodology used were: pH, EC (mS m-1), OM (%), N (%), P (ppm), K (ppm), Ca Cmol(+) kg-1, Mg Cmol(+) kg-1, K Cmol(+) kg-1, Na Cmol(+) kg-1, Acidity Cmol(+) kg-1, CEC Cmol(+) kg-1, Textural type, Sand (%), Silty (%), Clay (%), according to R. Bazán. Manual de procedimientos de los análisis de suelos y agua con fines de riego. https://repositorio.inia.gob.pe/bitstream/20.500.12955/504/1/Bazan-Manual_de_procedimientos_de_los.pdf, (2017) (accessed 08.06.23), and Norma Oficial Mexicana. NOM-021-RECNAT-2000. Determinación de la textura del suelo por procedimiento de Bouyoucos. http://www.ordenjuridico.gob.mx/Documentos/Federal/wo69255.pdf, (2000) (accessed 08.06.23).
Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria
CUI N° 2338934