Roseocin, a Novel Two-Component Lantibiotic from an Actinomycete. Mangal et al
Lantibiotics are lanthionine ring containing natural products that belong to the class of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs). Recent expansion in the availability of microbial genome data and in silico analysis tools, have accelerated the discovery of these promising alternatives to antibiotics. Following the genome-mining approach, a biosynthetic gene cluster for a putative two-component lantibiotic, roseocin, was identified in the genome of an Actinomycete, Streptomyces roseosporus NRRL 11379. Post-translationally modified lanthipeptides of this cluster were obtained by heterologous expression of the genes in E. coli, and were in vitro reconstituted to their bioactive form by exploiting commercial proteases like endoproteinase GluC, and proteinase K. The two peptides displayed synergistic antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including the WHO high priority pathogens, MRSA and VRE. Structural characterization confirmed the installation of four (methyl)lanthionine rings with an indispensable disulphide bond in the α-peptide, and six (methyl)lanthionine rings in the β-peptide, by a single promiscuous lanthionine synthetase, RosM. Roseocin is the first two-component lantibiotic from a non-firmicute, with extensive lanthionine bridging.