Bioaccumulation potential and dietary intake risks assessment of trace metals in Pleurotus tuberregium in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic from Sokoto state, Nigeria.
This study investigates the bioaccumulation potentials of trace metal contents in Pleurotus tuberregium collected during the COVID-19 lockdown and associated health risks were analyzed for the consumers by evaluating estimated weekly intake (EWI), non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to children, adolescents, and adults. Samples of mushroom fruiting bodies (n = 24) and their wooden substrates (n = 24) respectively, were collected from forest regions in Sokoto state, Nigeria. The concentrations of Li was analyzed by Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (OES-ICP), As, Cd and Pb were determined by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GF-AAS) and mercury by Vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (CV-AFS) after mineralization using acid. These metals and substrates showed a descending average content of As > Pb > Cd > Li > Hg respectively. EWI values of children, adolescents, and adults were all lower than provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) of the mushroom. According to the toxic hazard quotient (THQ) and the total hazard index (HI) calculations for trace metal contents in mushroom specie, mercury did not pose any risk on human health; whereas, the other determined trace metals gave the values of HI >1 and showed a possibility of risk on the long term. The mineral contents of P. tuberregium appear to be the result of a complex interaction between a species' unique physiology, local mineral soil geochemistry, and anthropogenic pollution factors.