Supplementary materials - Exploratory Study on Low-GWP Working Fluid Mixtures for Industrial High Temperature Heat Pump with 200 °C Supply Temperature

Published: 27 February 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/t75kdftzyv.1
Jan Spale,


Supplementary materials for a journal paper (Energy) on "Exploratory Study on Low-GWP Working Fluid Mixtures for Industrial High Temperature Heat Pump with 200 °C Supply Temperature". Contains results of the mixtures screening in CSV as well as the code to produce these results. Abstract: Single component working fluids, which could be used in a safe, efficient, reliable, and cost-efficient industrial high temperature heat pump (HTHP) subcritical vapor compression cycle (VCC) for process heat delivery at 200 °C are scarce and come with significant technical limitations. We therefore propose searching for a mixture that could meet these criteria. Hence, we created a Python code using REFPROP and Cantera libraries to model a simplified HTHP VCC with an advance cycle architecture and to assess the flammability of the mixture. 10 pure fluid components consisting of two subsets – hydrocarbons and hydro(chloro)fluoroolefins were identified. From these, over 460,000 variations of binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures were created. Solving the advanced HTHP VCC for each, we obtained cycle performance results which we filtered and sorted using thermodynamic and technical criteria. We did not find a perfect mixture which would meet all our criteria but a binary blend of cyclopentane+R1336mzz(Z) with mole fraction of [0.68,0.32] was selected as the winner candidate of the screening given the imposed limits. This mixture will be further experimentally investigated and used in a purpose-built test rig for screw compressor development. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) under the Industrial Efficiency & Decarbonization Office, Award Number DE-0010864.



Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke v Praze, Purdue University


Mechanical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Computer Simulation, Energy Conversion


Industrial Efficiency and Decarbonization Office