Human Y chromosome haplogroup L1-M22 traces Neolithic expansion in West Asia and supports the Elamite and Dravidian connection. Pathak et al.

Published: 28 May 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/ts4vc55rzp.1
, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz Ibrahim, Hovann Simonian, Peter Hrechdakian, Doron M Behar, Pakhrudin Arsanov,
, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Qasim Ayub,


The research hypothesis of our study revolves around investigating the genetic history and population movements associated with the Y chromosome haplogroup L1-M22, which is prevalent in West and South Asian populations but lacks comprehensive study. Our data, consisting of Y chromosome reads (FASTQ and BAM files), was subjected to robust Bayesian analyses involving 165 high-coverage Y chromosomes. The analyses support a West Asian origin for haplogroup L1-M22 approximately 20.6 thousand years ago (kya). Haplogroup L1-M22 exhibits a genetic ancestry paralleling that of hunter-gatherers from the Iranian Plateau and the Caucasus, providing insights into the genetic makeup of ancient populations in the region. We identified two distinct population groups carrying L1-M22 during the Early Holocene. One group expanded alongside the West Asian Neolithic transition, while the other migrated to South Asia around 8-6 kya, potentially contributing to the spread of Dravidian languages. Notably, the South Asian L1-M22 lineages experienced expansion around 4-3 kya, coinciding with the introduction of Steppe ancestry in the region. Our findings suggest a potential association between the migration of South Asian L1-M22 lineages and the spread of Dravidian languages, highlighting the intersection of genetic and linguistic dynamics in shaping population histories. The interpretation of our data underscores the significance of haplogroup L1-M22 in elucidating the historical dynamics of West and South Asian populations. These insights have implications for studies of human evolutionary and population genomics, shedding light on the intricate tapestry of human history. This dataset includes all supplemental files of the original publication.


Steps to reproduce

Please refer to the STAR Methods section of the original publication.


Tartu Ulikool


Genetics, Genomics, Human Genomics, Y Chromosome, Human Evolution, Evolutionary Genomics, Anthropological Genomics, Anthropological Genetics


Eesti Teadusagentuur


Eesti Teadusagentuur