Supplementary material and Dataset for the study Complex relations between milking-induced changes in teat structures and their pre-milking dimensions in Holstein cows

Published: 10 November 2022| Version 2 | DOI: 10.17632/tstnn6m75z.2
Matúš Gašparík,


Over the past decades, multiple studies have investigated the relation of teat morphology to udder health and milkability. Nevertheless, it is essential to examine how dimensions of teat structures influence each other. The main study, which is linked to this supplementary file and dataset, aimed to explore the relations between the dimensions of teat structures and their short-term reaction to milking to find the ideal dimensions of teat structures for optimal response to milking. Teat structures (teat length, canal length, thickness at barrel and apex, wall, and cistern width) were measured by ultrasonography before and after milking for 38 Holstein cows at the beginning, middle, and end of lactation. The dataset includes the identification number of the cow, lactation number, date of measurement, days in milk for the day of measurement, and teat measurements (before milking, after milking, and relative milking-induced change). Additional information about the milking parlor settings and the cows in the experiment (milk yields, milk quality, reproduction, genetics) can be found in the second sheet of the dataset, where we provide an external link to the national database of cattle (Czech Republic). After putting the identification number of the cow into the text field found on the link, all available information will be loaded in Czech. However, we recommend using "translate website" tool in the browser for the English version. The dataset could be used for studies in the research area of teat and udder morphology. The supplementary file contains additional statistics, supplementary results, and supplementary discussion for the manuscript "Complex relations between milking-induced changes in teat structures and their pre-milking dimensions in Holstein cows". This study's main findings and outcomes are presented in the main manuscript.


Steps to reproduce

Teat measurements took place immediately before and after the evening milking by a trained researcher. Teat length (LENGTH) was measured by a caliper. Teat barrel thickness (BARREL), teat cistern width (CISTERN), teat wall thickness (WALL), teat apex thickness (APEX), and teat canal length (CANAL) were measured by ultrasonography (Aloka SSD500 machine with 7.5 MHz linear probe; Hitachi Aloka Medical) with the warm water bath method (Neijenhuis et al., 2001). We chose to use the water bath method over the direct contact method as it provides better images of the whole teat without any possible deformations due to a lack of contact between the probe and the teat or udder tissue. Water in the cup was changed after each teat to prevent cross-contamination by mastitis pathogens. Collected ultrasonographic video records were processed in the NIS-Elements AR 3.2 (Nikon Corp.). In total, 912 videos were evaluated (38 cows × 4 teats × 2 before/after milking × 3 lactation stages). Teat structures were measured at standard locations, as in the study by Neijenhuis et al. (2001) or Wieland et al. (2019). Therefore, BARREL, CISTERN, and WALL were measured at 10 mm from Furstenberg’s rosette, while APEX was measured at Furstenberg’s rosette. CANAL was measured from Furstenberg’s rosette to the end of the teat. Milking-induced changes in teat structures (%) were calculated as [(post-milking value − pre-milking value) ÷ pre-milking value] × 100 (LENGTH%; BARREL%; CISTERN%; WALL%; APEX%; CANAL%).


Univerzita J Selyeho Pedagogicka fakulta, Ceska Zemedelska Univerzita v Praze


Ultrasonography, Mammary Gland, Dairy Cattle, Animal Morphology


Agentúra Ministerstva Školstva, Vedy, Výskumu a Športu SR

No. 002PU-4/2021

Národní Agentura pro Zemědělský Výzkum