Beneficial effects of isoflavones in the kidney of obese rats are mediated by PPAR-gamma expression
Several studies have demonstrated an association between the altered lipid metabolism and development of kidney injury because of a high-fat diet. Since the addition of fructose instead of glucose is common in the Occident diet, in this experimental model of obesity in rats, we opted for the high-lipidic-fructose diet (DH). After two months of ingestion, there was an expansion of the visceral fat, which was associated with long-term metabolic disorders, such as sustained hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, polyuria, dyslipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia), and hypertension. Additionally, we found a decrease in the renal blood flow (RBF), an increase in the renal vascular resistance (RVR). Biochemical markers of CKD were detected, there was inflammatory cell infiltration with elevated expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β), activation of renin-angiotensin system, and oxidative/nitrosative stress. Notably, the rats exposed to the DH diet for 120 days and treated concomitantly after 60 days with isoflavones (DH+ISO) were able to revert the metabolic parameters, renal alterations, and oxidative/nitrosative stress. The beneficial effects of the isoflavones in the kidney of the obese rats were found to be dependent on the expression of PPAR-gamma. The raw data from the experiments were attached.