Dataset of embodied energy and CO2 footprint employed to evaluate the materials sustainability
Table 4 reports the energy mix, i.e. the combination of the various primary energy sources that are used to guarantee the energy needs of a specific geographic area. It includes fossil fuels (natural gas, oil, and coal ), nuclear energy and the renewable energy sources (such as wood, biomass, solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal). The data were derived from the reports of the International Energy Agency (IEA). These primary energy sources are used for the counting of EE and CF derived from electrical power rating of 1 kW, for 1 hour of usage, evaluated for single world countries. Table 5 reports the detailed values of EE and CF employed by 50 processes analysed. For a faster identification of the most onerous steps, the data are divided into four categories: thermal treatments, mechanical treatments, chemical treatments, and use of water. This last category indicates the use of water for washing phases or to produce water vapour. Table 6 reports the detailed values of EE and CF for the 50 processes analysed, calculated considering the energy mix of France. Table 7 reports the detailed values of EE and CF for the 50 processes analysed, calculated considering the energy mix of Norway. Table 8 reports the detailed values of EE and CF for the 50 processes analysed, calculated considering the energy mix of India. Table 9 reports the comparative sustainability evaluation for new proposed absorbents considering France, Norway and India, three Countries with different energy mix.
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The work presents the sustainability of 50 new published sustainable adsorbents based on ESCAPE approach. This method has the great advantage to provide only one indicator, that accounts for both energies and emissions, making viable and simple the comparison of two materials. This work also demonstrates the potentialities of using the ESCAPE index in materials design, with the possibility to highlight the most intensive energy steps and support the identification of suitable strategies for eco-design, concerning the development of emerging technologies. Finally, it is shown that the ESCAPE approach also accounts for the difference in countries' energy mix (that derives from a local different mix of fossil and non-fossil fuels).