Behavioral Time Budgets of Monarchs and Regal Fritillaries

Published: 23 September 2021| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/v72nr8kr6k.1
Brooke Karasch


This data and associated R scripts correspond to a paper currently in submission at the Journal of Insect Behavior. The CSV file contains behavioral time-budget data for 63 monarchs (Danaus plexippus) and 32 regal fritillaries (Speyeria idalia), which were observed in the summers of 2018 and 2019 in central North Dakota. Behavioral data is provided in total seconds observed of each behavior, with behaviors as column heads and butterfly identifiers as row heads. The file also contains vegetation information for the locations at which the butterflies were observed. Vegetation types are given as column heads, with proportion of each veg type given as a mean. The R files contain reproducible code for analysis of time budgets via MANOVA, NMDS ordination, and linear regression. Please contact the first author, Brooke Karasch, with any inquiries. (Description last updated 9/23/21).


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We used R to analyze this data. R code provided is annotated. Vegetation codes in the CSV are as follows: Floral Abundance = total abundance of blooming forbs along a transect where the butterfly was seen; Floral Richness = total species count of flowering forbs along a transect where the butterfly was seen, POPR = Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), BRIN2 = smooth brome (bromus inermis), NatC3 = native cool season grasses, IntC3 = introduced cool season grasses, NatC4 = native warm season grasses, IntC4 = introduced warm season grasses, NatLeg = native legumes, IntLeg = introduced legumes, NatFrb = native forbs, IntFrb = introduced forbs, NatWdy = native woody plants, IntWdy = introduced woody plants, BareGrd = bare ground, Litter = fallen/flattened dead plant material, StdDead = standing dead plant material, and VOR = visual obstruction measured via Robel pole.


Animal Behavior, Grassland Ecology, Butterfly