Ratiometric electrochemical aptasensor based on split aptamer and Au-RGO for detection of Aflatoxin M1
A novel ratiometric electrochemical aptasensor based on split aptamer and Au-rGO nanomaterials was proposed to detect Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). In this work, Au-rGO nanomaterials were coated on the electrode through the electrodeposition method to increase the aptamer enrichment. We split the aptamer of AFM1 into two sequences (S1 and S2), where sequence S1 was immobilized on the electrode due to the Au-S bond, whereas sequence S2 was tagged with methylene blue (MB) and acted as a response signal. A complementary strand to S1 (CS1) labeled with ferrocene (Fc) was introduced as another reporter. In the presence of AFM1, CS1 was released from the electrode surface due to the formation of the S1-AFM1-S2 complex, leading to a decrease in Fc and an increase in MB signal. The developed ratiometric aptasensor exhibited a linear range of 0.03 μg L-1 to 2.00 μg L-1, with a detection limit of 0.015 μg L-1 for AFM1 detection. The ratiometric aptasensor also showed a linear relationship from 0.2 μg L-1 to 1.00 μg L-1, with a detection limit of 0.05 μg L-1 in natural milk after sample pretreatment, indicating the successful application of the developed ratiometric aptasensor. Our proposed strategy provides a new way to construct aptasensors with high sensitivity and selectivity.