Impedance readings at ST-36, ST-37, ST-39, and GB-34

Published: 11 April 2018| Version 5 | DOI: 10.17632/vdjxymhxy4.5
Fletcher Kovich


Readings of impedance taken from four acupoints on the same subject, over a 14 hour period on the same day. Kovich's hypothesis is that information about the states in each organ are communicated to the organ's related acupoints in realtime via an electrical wave, and that these states are reflected in various states at the acupoint, including the skin impedance and temperature. When an organ has been stressed for some time, other states may also appear at its related acupoints, such as tenderness, shooting pains, redness, rough skin, boils, and pain in the nearby joints. The experiment shows that the impedance changes greatly throughout the day, and the peaks appear to correspond with periods of increased stomach activity, such as when digesting food.


Steps to reproduce

In the experiment, the monitored acupoints were on the right lower leg. A control point was also monitored for each, being 21mm from each acupoint, diagonally in a lateral/distal direction, except for the GB-34 control, which was in a medial/distal direction. Each acupoint was first located by a Chinese Medicine acupuncturist with over 12 years clinical experience. The location was then verified electrically, and the point of lowest impedance identified. This location was usually within around 4mm of the point located by the practitioner. The electrically-located acupoint was then marked with a felt-tip pen, so that, throughout the day, the test electrode could be replaced within around 1mm of the same location. The test electrode consisted of a pair of electrodes, 6mm apart, each having a conical point, reducing to a tip of around 1mm diameter. An earth electrode was also connected at about 4-10cm from each test acupoint. Gell was used to make the contact between each electrode and the skin. A 400mv 5KHz sine wave was used as the test signal, which was passed through each electrode and the impedances noted. For a full description of the equipment and techniques used, please see:


Acupuncture, Impedance