coronaChargingFoam: An OpenFOAM based solver for multi-physical simulations of direct unipolar diffusion charging of aerosol particles
Diffusion charging of ultrafine aerosol particles is widely used in various fields and understanding the multi-physical phenomena during the charging processes is critical to the optimization of chargers and prediction of particle evolution in particulate systems. In this work, a numerical algorithm of unipolar aerosol diffusion charging is coupled with corona discharge, a combination of electric field, current continuity and heat transfer, and fluid flow enabling the modelling of multi-physics in direct charging processes. The governing equations are discretized based on the finite volume schemes. Methods of numerically calculating the ion-particle attachment coefficients are proposed and a class named niMixedFvPatchField describing the boundary condition of ion injection on the anode is defined on the basis of OpenFOAM libraries. Iteratively strategies are applied to uncouple the governing equations and the PISO (Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators) algorithm is used to solve the aerosol flow equations. A new solver labelled as coronaChargingFoam in the OpenFOAM framework is developed to implement the numerical algorithm and it is further validated by comparing four test cases: Laplacian electric field, electric field-charge coupling effect, ion-particle attachment coefficients, and charging efficiencies. Acceptable agreement level in all these comparisons verifies the fidelity of the solver implementation.